Nissan Maxima QX
since 1993 release
Repair and operation of the car
Nissan Maxima QX
+ Cars of the Nissan Maxima brand
- Maintenance instruction
Elements of security systems of the car
Car equipment, arrangement of devices and governing bodies
Methods of operation
+ Settings and routine maintenance
+ Cooling systems, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Methods of operationMain cautions
The Nissan car will provide to the owner optimum characteristics and will show high operational qualities on roads with a good and equal covering. It is promoted by a small road gleam and low-profile tires.
Be careful at movement on uneven roads and unpaved roads. Trips on them can lead to damage of a suspension bracket and/or bottom of the car. Show care when moving via special limiters of speed ("the lying police officer") which settle down directly on a roadbed, - overcoming them is at great speed also fraught with serious damages of a suspension bracket and/or bottom.
In order to avoid damage of a front or rear bumper, be careful at a congress from curbstones and ramps/ramps of trailers. Remember that the low suspension bracket does dangerous to this car entrance on borders even of usual height.
Running in of the new car
To provide reliability and durability of the car in operation, throughout the first 600 km of a run it is necessary to follow the following rules:
a) Do not start on full gas, avoid sharp dispersals;
b) You do not brake too sharply. Normal extra earnings of new brake shoes happens over 300 km of a run during which it is necessary to brake, whenever possible, smoothly and with average intensity.
After repair or replacement of the engine, and also after replacement of brake shoes it is necessary to observe similar restrictions and recommendations.
Gas station of the car
Type of the applied fuel
In order to avoid development of a detonation in the engine use for gas station of the car unleaded gasoline with octane number not lower than 95 (by a research method - AI).
Operation of the car on ethylated fuel can lead to failure of the catalytic converter, the engine. It is worth to remember also about a factor of environmental pollution.
Do not forget in the terms stipulated by the Schedule of maintenance (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance) to make control and adjustment of levels of working liquids, and also critical knots and systems of the car.
You watch adequacy of indications of measuring instruments and counters on an instrument guard of the car.
Transportation of goods in the car
The car is equipped with several capacities intended for placement of the transported objects.
The ware offices located in interior of the car are intended for placement of small objects. Treat the main ware box in the dashboards, door pockets and pockets located in seatbacks and also the ware box which is built in the central console their number.
Large-size objects should be placed in the luggage compartment of the car. To transportation of lengthy objects becomes possible thanks to a folding design of backs of a back seat.
It is necessary to remember, however, that the wrong transportation of freights can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, therefore, to reduce safety. Before transporting this or that freight in the car, study information given below.
Transportation of goods
Maximum loading capacity of the car
In transit freights in the car it is necessary to consider that the full mass of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver and passengers, mass of the hook-on device installed on the car, and also the mass of the trailer falling on it. At any options of loading of the car of load of axes also should not exceed extreme admissible values. Information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is provided in Specifications.
Transportation of goods in interior of the car
Reliably fix all objects placed in interior of the car, in order to avoid their shift in case of the road accident.
Do not place large-size objects on the back shelf of salon, - they narrow to the driver the sector of the review and can be dumped forward at collision and sharp braking.
Make sure that the objects laid on the floor behind front seats cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent the driver to manipulate freely pedals of management, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of provision of front seats.
You hold a ware box during the movement closed.
Transportation of goods in the luggage compartment or on the luggage carrier installed on a car roof
Try to distribute freight evenly, placing baggage it is possible closer to seats. Heavy freights always have to settle down from below, on half of the luggage compartment. Reliably record the transported objects a strong cord that they could not be displaced on the run of the car. Never stack baggage higher than the level of backs of front seats.
In transit large-size or lengthy objects at the put back seats, try to fix reliably them a strong cord to prevent freight shift during emergency brake application of the car. Do not stack baggage higher than the level of seatbacks in order to avoid reduction of the sector of the review to the driver.
In need of transportation of the lengthy objects which are not allowing to close a cover of the luggage compartment you remember that the fulfilled engine gases can get to interior of the car, - carry out the appropriate measures of precaution.
At placement of freight on the luggage carrier installed on a car roof track that the cumulative mass of baggage did not exceed admissible value. For obtaining more detailed information address on car repair shop of the Nissan company.
Start of the engine
1. Cock the parking brake.
2. At a low temperature of air switch off everything auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce load of the rechargeable battery.
3. On the models equipped with RKPP squeeze out a coupling pedal against the stop and include neutral transfer.
4. On models with AT make sure that the lever of the selector is installed in situation "P" or "N" and squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
5. Without squeezing out the accelerator pedal, turn a key in the ignition lock in situation "START" and include a starter. If the engine was not started at once, continue to scroll a bent shaft a starter, remembering that duration of continuous functioning of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. The repeated attempt of start should be made not less than ten seconds later, - the pause is necessary for cooling of an electric motor of a starter.
6. If the engine does not manage to be started during the continuous work of a starter within 15 seconds, or the started engine at once becomes deaf, try to execute start at the accelerator pedal which is squeezed out to a half. After successful start of the engine release the accelerator pedal to avoid sharp increase in turns.
7. If it is not possible to start the engine still, completely squeeze out the accelerator pedal and hold it in the pressed situation during the whole time of functioning of a starter, - it will help to remove the excess fuel which got to the inlet pipeline and cylinders of the engine. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous cases, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine is not started after a purge of cylinders, once again try to start it at partially squeezed out accelerator pedal. Right after implementation of start release a pedal
Features of start of the engine in cold weather in the conditions of highlands (height above sea level more than 2400 m)
At a low temperature of air start of the engine is at a loss. In the conditions of highlands where air is strongly discharged, start of the engine becomes complicated in addition. Instructions which need to be followed at start of the engine in the considered conditions are given below.
1. Switch off everything auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce load of the rechargeable battery.
2. Squeeze out the accelerator pedal to a half and hold it in this situation during the whole time of scrolling of a bent shaft of the engine a starter. Duration of continuous inclusion of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. After implementation of successful start of the engine gradually release the accelerator pedal, without allowing substantial increase of turns.
3. If the engine is not started, squeeze out the accelerator pedal against the stop and hold it in the pressed situation during the whole time of functioning of a starter. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous case, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine is still not started, repeat attempt.
4. At a negative temperature of air or if the car was not used within several days, let's the engine get warm within 3 ÷ 4 minutes, only after it begin the movement.
Features of driving of the car about the manual check point
1. For ensuring smooth and unaccented switching all transfers of the forward course are synchronized. In the transmission there is a blocking device which excludes a possibility of direct switching from the fifth transfer to transfer of a backing. When switchings the transmission "up" (on the highest steps) or "down" (on the lowest steps) completely switch off coupling. After transfer of the lever of switching of the transmission to the provision of the following transfer smoothly release a coupling pedal. During the movement to the chosen transfer completely remove a leg from a coupling pedal in order to avoid premature wear of components of the mechanism of the last.
2. Include transfer of a backing only after a full stop of the car. The attempt to include a reverse on the run can lead to serious damage of the transmission. Before turning on of the reverse gear completely switch off coupling and sustain short (in several seconds) a pause.
3. For delay of the car it is possible to use braking by the engine, having switched the transmission to one of the lowered steps. Braking by the engine allows to control the speed of the movement of the car at the safe level and prevents an overheat of brake mechanisms at the movement on long descents with a considerable bias. Switch the transmission to the lowered steps consistently, in process of reduction of speed not to allow excess of the most admissible frequency of rotation of a bent shaft of the engine on a tachometer. The arrow of a tachometer should not come into a red zone of a scale. In all cases it is necessary to be guided by values of the maximum admissible speed of the car on the corresponding transfers (see below).
Features of driving of the car with automatic transmission
Start of motion
1. Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and move the selector lever to provision of the movement.
2. Release a parking and pedal brake and gradually begin the movement.
3. Remember that turns of idling of the cold engine are always slightly higher, than at heated-up. It is necessary to observe the increased care when switching transfer (both forward, and a backing) until the engine does not get warm.
4. In order to avoid breakthroughs at a start of motion do not accelerate the engine idling.
Precautionary measures at the movement
It is forbidden to switch the selector to situation "P" or "R" during the movement.
Start of the engine is possible only in provisions "P" or "N" of the lever of the selector. In other provisions of transmission the engine should not be started!
During switching from situation "N" in provision of the movement the engine has to work at single turns.
In case of a car stop on the steep slope it is necessary to squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake (previously having switched the selector to situation "N") to hold the car on the place and to protect transmission from an overheat.
Avoid sharp start and pro-slipping of wheels. It is not necessary to accelerate the engine idling when the car costs, - it can lead to sudden start-off of the car if the selector is installed in situation "D", "R", "2", "1", or to breakage of the engine if the selector is in situation "N" or "P".
Do not begin the movement until the engine completely does not get warm.
At the parking of the air cleaner squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and when the car finally stops, move the selector to situation "P". Cock the parking brake and release a pedal of a foot brake.
For switching in provisions "P", "R" or "2" on "1" squeeze out the lock button. All other provisions can be included without squeezing of the button
Provisions of the lever of the selector of ranges of transfers
Situation "P". In this position of the lever of the selector of ranges the secondary shaft of transmission is mechanically blocked. Always you transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to situation "P" at switching off or start of the engine. To bring the lever of the selector of ranges out of situation "P", it is necessary to squeeze out a brake pedal, previously having released the accelerator pedal. Reject the lever of the selector of ranges to the right and bring him out of situation "P".
In order to avoid breakage of AT you transfer the lever to situation "P" only after a full stop of the car. Remark: Extraction of a key from the lock of ignition becomes possible only after transfer of the lever of the selector in the provision "P".
Situation "R". Methods of management of the lever of the selector of ranges at its transfer to situation "R" (Backing) from situation "P" are described above. (Neutral) you make turning on of the lever in situation "R" from situation "N" only after a full stop of the car.
Situation "N". Use situation "N" (Neutral) at start of the decayed engine on the run of the car and at short stops of the car with the working engine. If you for any reason need to depart from the car, previously transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to situation "P" (Parking). At a lever conclusion squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake of situation "N".
Situation "D". In this situation the lever of the selector of ranges has to be constantly at the movement of the car in normal road conditions. In the range "D" (Movement) automatic gear shifting of the forward course depending on the speed of the car and extent of pressing an accelerator pedal is provided. During the movement of the car you can notice what automatic switchings to the highest transfers occurs later, that is at higher speeds of the movement if the engine of the car is not warmed up up to the normal working temperature yet. It provides more bystry warming up of the engine.
Situation "2". At inclusion of range "2" automatic transmission will constantly work at the second transfer. At a car stop the transmission does not pass to the first transfer. Constant inclusion of the second transfer provides good traction dynamics of the car on rises and a possibility of intensive braking with the engine on abrupt descents. Range "2" is recommended to be included at a start of motion on a slippery paving, and also at the movement on deep snow. It helps to prevent strong pro-slipping of driving wheels of the car.
At inclusion of range "2" on the run of the car inclusion of the second transfer to transmissions automatically is late and happens only after the speed of the car decreases to the safe level at which the frequency of rotation of a bent shaft of the engine will not exceed the most admissible value.
Avoid inclusion of situation "2" at speeds of movement over 115 km/h (models with the VQ30DE)/85 engine of km/h (VG20DE engine). At the chosen situation "2" do not accelerate the car over the stipulated limit.
Situation "1". At inclusion of range "1" automatic transmission will constantly work at the first transfer. If inclusion of range "1" is made at a speed more than 60 km/h (models with the VQ30DE)/65 engine of km/h (VG20DE engine), then transmission at first will switch to the second transfer. Inclusion of an intermediate step allows to exclude sharp and unexpected braking by the engine.
Automatic switching of transmission to a low gear (kick-down mode)
When overtaking, or for bystry pass of the inclined section of the road press an accelerator pedal against the stop, - it will lead to switching to lower second or first transfer, depending on the speed of the movement of the car.
Inclusion of the raising transfer
At the normal movement the raising transfer has to be included. The selector handle at the same time has to stand in situation "D". In the mode of the raising transfer in process of increase in speed of the car transmission automatically increases transfer.
The mechanism of inclusion of the raising transfer begins to work only after warming up of the engine.
At the movement up or down long slopes when "braking" is applied by the engine, should switch off the raising transfer. In addition, at the long movement at a low speed, or on long smooth rise, transmission can constantly switch between the 3rd transfer and raising, causing feeling of discomfort. In such cases it is also recommended to switch off the raising transfer. When the raising transfer is turned off, the corresponding control lamp burns. After traffic conditions are normalized, again include the raising transfer.
In order to avoid increase in fuel consumption the car, it is not necessary to go by high speed with the turned-off raising transfer during long intervals of time.
The switch of operating modes of the automatic transmission (if is available)
On this automatic transmission three different modes of the movement - the CAR, SNOW and SPORT are provided. Each mode is intended for optimization of the movement in certain road conditions. The modes are set by the switch located on the central console of the car.
The mode is intended for the normal movement at which gear shifting happens automatically. To the CAR mode there corresponds average position of the switch ("AT"). It is most effective at normal operation of the car with frequent stops, or at the movement on the highway when conditions practically do not change. In this mode transmission switches so that the engine worked in the most economic way. At sharp squeezing of a pedal of an accelerator transmission can switch in the SPORT mode. At the same time the SPORT indicator lights up.
The mode is intended for the movement or start of the car on snow-covered or slippery roads. To the SNOW mode there corresponds position of the switch "Yo" at which establishment the Yo/SNOW indicator lights up. In this mode transmission switches according to features of driving on snow - to lower turns of the engine and lower speeds of the movement - with the purpose to provide the silent and comfortable movement.
The sports mode is intended for powerful acceleration at a sports manner of driving or on long rise. To the SPORT mode there corresponds position of the S switch at which installation the SPORT indicator lights up. In this mode transmission switches according to features of sports driving - to higher turns of the engine and higher speeds of the car - with the purpose to provide powerful acceleration during the overtaking or rise.
Operation of system of antiemergency protection leads to blocking of all transfers to AT on the third transfer. At the following, after protection operation, turn of the ignition key in the provision of "ON" the SPORT indicator lights up for 2 seconds, and then blinks within 8 seconds. At the same time the car remains in the operated state. Antiemergency protection works under extraordinary conditions, for example, at strong rotation of a wheel and the subsequent sharp braking. Protection can work even if all electric chains function normally. To restore the normal working condition of the car, turn the ignition key in the provision of "OFF", wait 3 seconds and return a key to the provision of "ON". If the usual working condition is not restored, then it is necessary to address on HUNDRED Nissans for survey and if it is necessary, repair of transmission.
Parking of the car
1. Leaving the car on the parking, always you cock the parking brake. Remember that the control lamp of turning on of the parking brake which is built in in an instrument guard, serves only for a reminder to the driver about need of an otpuskaniye of the parking brake before a start of motion. Burning of a control lamp does not guarantee completeness of raising of the parking brake. In order to avoid spontaneous rolling the car on a bias be convinced that the parking brake is cocked properly.
2. At first it is necessary to cock the parking brake, and then to transfer the lever of the selector of ranges of the automatic transmission to situation "P". Such sequence of actions prevents casual start-off of the car and excludes transfer of considerable load of the mechanism of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from skatyvayushchy force car. Unloading of the coupling of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from skatyvayushchy force car. Unloading of the coupling of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission provides at the subsequent start-off of the car simplicity of a conclusion of the lever from situation "P".
3. At the parking of the car on rise, develop forward wheels aside from a border and vice versa.
4. Before a start of motion, be convinced that the parking brake is completely released. At the movement with not completely released parking brake the overheat and failure of brake mechanisms of back wheels is possible. Besides, it can lead to violation of serviceability of functioning of ABS.
Recommendation about the safe parking of the car
1. Track that the top hatch in a roof and all windows were closed.
2. Switch off all devices of lighting.
3. Put baggage and valuable things in the closed offices, or occupy them with yourself.
4. Lock locks of doors by means of a key or the remote control the uniform lock.
5. On the models equipped with anticreeping system make sure of turning on of the indicator of system on the dashboard which demonstrates activation of the device.
6. Never leave the car with the working engine on the platforms covered with dry foliage, a high grass or other combustible materials. Remember that the case of the catalytic converter can be heated to very high temperature that is fraught with ignition.
Recommendations about security measures at operation of the models equipped with ABS
ABS does not reduce a brake way of the car and is only capable to provide preservation of controllability of the car in the course of braking. In view of told it is necessary to support constantly a safe distance to ahead the going vehicle, proceeding from the speed of the car and specific conditions of the movement.
ABS does not prevent a side skid at sharp change of the direction of the movement of the car. For example, the car can enter a drift when passing turn at too high speed or at breakthrough of a wheel during change of a lane. Always support the safe speed of the vehicle, being conformed with a condition of a paving and traffic conditions.
ABS does not prevent loss of course stability of the car. In the course of emergency brake application avoid sharp breakthroughs of a steering wheel.
The brake way of the equipped ABS car can exceed a little habitual for models with the ordinary brake system. Told especially it is noticeable at the movement on fragile and uneven pavings (gravel, snow). At the movement in similar road conditions reduce speed and increase a distance to ahead the going vehicle.
Control lamp of violations of functioning of ABS
The structure of system of anti-blocking switched on the self-diagnostics block. Externally the procedure of self-diagnostics of system is shown by small pulsations of a foot brake right after start of the engine. Failure diagnostics of ABS is made also at each braking of the car.
At identification by system of any malfunction on the control panel the corresponding control lamp lights up. Operation of a control lamp demonstrates that ABS is disconnected. At the same time operability of the working brake system remains fully, except for function of automatic control of brake effort which is performed by ABS. If the control lamp of ABS does not die away after start of the engine or joins in time of the movement, follows at the first opportunity to address on the nearest car repair shop.
Joint inclusion of control lamps of ABS and refusals of brake system / raising of the parking brake also means shutdown of function of regulation of brake effort that indicates existence of malfunctions both in ABS, and in the brake system. At the same time the brake system of the car will continue to provide rather adequate braking of the car, however it is necessary to avoid sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake. Immediately address on the nearest car repair shop.
Recommendations about driving of the car in adverse weather conditions
Traction control system (tracking control)
The traction control system (tracking control) allowing to start and accelerate more surely on a slippery paving can be included in the package of some models. The system automatically limits the power developed by the engine as soon as one of driving wheels loses coupling with a paving and begins to revolve. It is possible to feel operation of the traction control system on reaction on a steering wheel.
Driving during a rain, in strong fog or snowfall demands from the driver of special skills, in view of decrease in coupling of wheels with a paving and deterioration in visibility. Constantly support the car in technically working order. At commission of trips to bad weather observe extra care. Avoid use of a tempostat (at the corresponding complete set of the car) in adverse weather conditions.
Features of driving in adverse road conditions
Reduce speed and move more slowly, than usually in normal weather conditions on a dry paving. Remember that reactions of the car to management will be more sluggish and slowed down even if the paving looks only slightly damp. Try to influence all controls of the car smoothly. On a wet and slippery paving the sharp breakthrough of a steering wheel or careless squeezing of a brake pedal can lead to loss of control over management. At the beginning of a trip, still completely without having adapted to adverse weather conditions, show the increased care. It is especially useful to follow this rule at the movement during snowfall. It is necessary to remember that at operation of the car in warm season many useful skills of driving of the car on a slippery paving are forgotten that demands some time for their restoration.
Show extra care, driving the car during a rain as lack of practice during the dry period does not allow to be reconstructed and adapt a bridle manner for new conditions quickly.
For traffic safety in any weather conditions it is very important to have the good review in all directions. It is worth to remember to take care also that your car remained to well noticeable drivers of other vehicles, - you remember that at movement along the route inclusion of passing beam will never prevent even during daylight hours. It is more difficult to fulfill these requirements in adverse weather conditions.
Regularly check a condition of brushes of screen wipers and snuffled windshield washers. Constantly support the required liquid level in the tank of the washing liquid. Use for gas station of system of washing of glasses only liquids, the recommended brands. You watch a condition of working elements of screen wipers, you make their replacement as soon as brushes cease to purify glass properly. For prevention of condensation of moisture on the internal surface of glasses use having blown in glasses air, in case of need turn on the air conditioner.
Coupling of tires with a paving
Regularly control air pressure in tires and degree of wear of protectors of tires (pattern depth). Both of these factors are extremely important from the point of view of good coupling of tires with a paving and prevention of the phenomenon of hydroplaning, that is sharp reduction of coupling with the road at entrance to pools. For ensuring the best controllability with the car and traffic safety at approach of a winter season use studded rubber.
During the movement constantly watch changes of road conditions which often are very unstable. Presence on the road of wet foliage can be not dangerous, than ice. Often in appearance the pure and dry paving can ice over certain sites. Especially dangerous conditions develop at air temperatures about 0 °C when pools can alternate with frost that does behavior of the car especially unpredictable.
Be careful when switching the automatic transmission in the lowered range. On a slippery covering sharp inclusion of a low gear can lead to short-term pro-slipping of driving wheels and a drift of the car
Extra care and attention are required from the driver at commission of overtakings. Equally it is necessary to observe attentiveness, when overtaking your car by other vehicles. Splashes of water and dirt from under wheels of the overtaken truck can sharply worsen visibility through a windshield. The rush of a side wind during commission of overtaking of the truck or the bus is dangerous by loss of control over management.
Towage of the trailer
The models of cars considered in the present manual first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their baggage. However, at obligatory observance of a number of the general rules which are given below the Nissan cars can be used also with success for towage of the trailer.
The maximum vertical load on the hook-on device of the car with a full mass of the trailer should not exceed 50 kgfs. For trailers with a full weight up to 500 kg it is necessary to follow the following rule: vertical load of a turnbuckle has to make about 10% of the full mass of the trailer. For example, if the full mass of the trailer with freight is equal to 225 kg, vertical load of the hook-on device has to make about 22.5 kgfs. Adjust load of a car turnbuckle, as appropriate placing freight on the trailer. For a start it is recommended to place freight so that about 60% of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40% - behind. If the full mass of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute freight on trailer length more evenly. Never load the trailer so that a back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, - it leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tires with a paving.
The full mass of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed the corresponding maximum admissible values. Remark: The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver, passengers and baggage, mass of the hook-on device and the mass of the trailer falling on it. Remember that the mass of the additional equipment installed on the car and the mass of the trailer falling on a turnbuckle (at towage of the trailer), reduce payload capacity of the vehicle by the corresponding sizes.
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer as they are usually exploited as a part of the road train, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full mass of the car and the trailer, and also masses falling on axes of the car and trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications.
The hook-on device has to fasten in several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed more evenly and fell on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount on the car the hook-on devices leaning only on a rear bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loadings. Installation of a turnbuckle has to be made by qualified personnel of car service.
Towage of the large-size trailer (Caravan type) usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify the requirements of the local legislation and Traffic regulations concerning towage of trailers cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate extent of deterioration in a rearview through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory, then for reasons of safety it is necessary to equip the special mirrors providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Connection of the trailer to the car
If you are going to buy the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have the electric drive of management, - the design of the hydraulic drive of the working brake system of your car does not provide a possibility of connection to it of any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of accession to a brake hydraulic actuator of the car of the brake system of the trailer what attractive it would not seem will lead to deterioration in efficiency of braking of the car and decrease in traffic safety.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain have to be reliably fixed to appropriate places on the dyshl of the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track that the chain passed under dyshly the trailer, - it will prevent falling of the forward end of a dyshl on the road in case of a hitch rassoyedineniye. Free length of a chain has to be sufficient not to prevent commission of turns of the road train with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to allow drawings of a chain on the ground.
Devices of external lighting and alarm systems on the trailer
As on trailers of various brands various laying of an electrical wiring can be used, the equipment of a turnbuckle should be charged to specialists of car service. In certain cases installation of a transitional nozzle (adapter) can be required.
Before connecting trailer electric equipment to the car power supply network, surely consult at car repair shop.
Preparation for towage of the trailer
1. Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and check of the car and trailer.
2. Measure the vertical loading falling on the hook-on device, - use usual bathroom scales.
3. Check reliability of fastening of a dyshl of the trailer and a safety chain.
4. Check technical condition of tires and pressure of air in tires on the car and the trailer. The lowered air pressure in tires considerably worsens controllability of the car and the road train. At the same time check a state and pressure of air in a spare wheel.
5. Having completely loaded and having attached the trailer to the car, make sure of lack of excessive "flash" of a back part of the car, - in case of need freight in the car/trailer.
6. Check serviceability of functioning of devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the car and the trailer.
7. Specify the operating restrictions of traffic regulations for the maximum speed of the movement of the road train as a part of the car and the trailer. Planning to make a trip around several countries, in advance get acquainted with features of the local requirements and restrictions concerning towage of the trailer the car as the restrictions can work in each country. Remark: In the European countries restriction of speed of the movement of the road train as a part of the car and the trailer is established at the level of 100 km/h.
Security measures at towage of the trailer
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead the going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of the road train or even a turning of the trailer.
Remember that road train length considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car the bigger distance, than usually is considerable to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at turn of the road train the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can run or collide an obstacle which the car freely passed. When overtaking other vehicle you do not hurry to come back to the row as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The road train, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of rushes of a side wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or the road train, try to support rectilinear and uniform motion of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on the road train from ahead the going car reduce speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At towage of the trailer load of all main units and systems of the car increases. Therefore at frequent use of the car for towage of the trailer it is necessary to carry out periodic maintenance of the car according to the regulations characteristic of intense service conditions (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance).
Additional load of the car even more increases at operation of the road train in the hilly area. When overcoming long rises you watch closely temperature condition of the engine according to the arrow index on the control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off the air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue the movement. If temperature of cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to increase, stop on a roadside and let's the engine cool down.
At the movement in the hilly or hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass into the lowered range of "D3" that will prevent an overheat and excessive wear of details of the AT frictional elements. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at the movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of the automatic transmission.
At a road train stop on rise do not hold it on the place by pressing of a pedela of gas, - it can lead to AT overheat. Use the working brake system, or the parking brake.
At management of automatic transmission in the manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed with a speed of the movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. The recommended high-speed ranges for use of various steps of the transmission are specified in Specifications.
Zaparkovyvy the road train on the long parking, especially on descent or rise, take all precautionary measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that when rolling the road train they rested against curbstone. Completely cock the parking brake and transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to situation "P". On the models equipped with RKPP turn on the first, or reverse gear. In addition enclose antiretractable boots under both wheels of the trailer.
The control of road train at the movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and a training. Move a backing carefully and slowly, do not rotate excessively quickly steering wheel. When maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful that someone, standing outside, monitored movements of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at rotation of a steering wheel clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left and vice versa. When maneuvering the road train the backing recommends to hold a rim of a steering wheel from below (and not from above, as usual, at the movement by the forward course). At such successful fellow habitual compliance between the direction of turn of a steering wheel and the movement of the trailer remains: hand shift leads to turn of the trailer also to the left to the left and vice versa.